October 21, 2020 ~ Shabbat NOAH. SIGAH.

Sukkot

Sukkot, The Festival of Booths (סֻכּוֹת)

Introduction by Sam Catton

On this holiday, which occurs four days after Yom Kippur, Israel is commanded to dwell in make-shift booths for seven days and to bring together the four species of the Lulab cluster, the citron, the palm branch, the myrtle and the willow of the brook. These were waved as the worshippers encircled the Altar in the Temple. Today, the Synagogue Tebah replaces the Temple Altar. The complete Hallel is recited.

Thus, the people leave their homes of comfort, and enter into the frail booths for seven days to remind us of our forty years of traveling in the desert, where we had no homes, and where the Lord protected us from all the dangers during the most difficult years.

Sukkot is a very [happy] holiday. The people came from all parts of the country to celebrate in Jerusalem. Their jubilation was two-fold. Secure in the knowledge that their prayers were accepted on Yom Kippur, and extremely grateful for granaries and storehouses filled with the ingathering of all the produce of the fields. Everyone is commanded to rejoice during these seven days with their families, and thank the Almighty for all the blessings He has showered upon us.

As we fulfill God's commandment of dwelling in the Sukah, of holding the Lulab, by refraining from work, and by rejoicing in the Holiday, we indicate our fear and our love of God.

Maqamat: 1 Sukkot- Sigah; 2 Sukkot- Ajam (Sasgar); Shabbat Hol Hamoed- Bayat; Hoshana Rabbah- Yom Kippur Melodies; Shemini Aseret- Saba; Simhat Torah- Ajam

Image from Sassoon Manuscript #647 of Maqamat and Pizmonim used for the Sukkot festival services in Aleppo, circa 1850.

Shemini Asseret/Zot Haberacha (שמיני עצרת)

Introduction by Sam Catton

After the joyful observance of Sukkot, the Lord pleads with Israel to remain in Jerusalem an extension of one more day to the Sukkot Holiday; a one day individual holiday by itself known as Shemini Hag Aseret. God is saddened at the thought of the people going back home.

On this day, prayers were offered to the Lord to provide us with enough rainfall for our crops and for all other needs.

At this point, the cycle of the weekly Sabbath Torah readings is completed, and immediately a new cycle begins.

This day is also known as Simhat Torah, rejoicing in the Law. Unrestrained dancing with the Torah is accompanied with singing takes place. The Tebah is encircled seven times in a ceremony known as "Haqafot". Children of all ages participate. Candies, goodies, toys, and flags are generously distributed to children, thus instilling in them a love of Torah and of this holiday. The children overflow the Synagogues. Every inch of space is occupied.

Image from Sassoon Manuscript #647 of Pizmonim used for the Shemini Asseret and Simhat Torah festivals in Aleppo, circa 1850.

Prayers

Section Pizmon Page Song CommentaryRecordings Application
Tehillim 42 65 מזמור מב - מזמור לחג הסכות Bnai Qorah Recited on Sukkot festival; combined with next Psalm. About the yearning one feels to go to the temple for pilgrimage. Aleppo Codex Max E Tawil
H Baruch Ben Haim
למנצח משכיל
Tehillim 43 66 מזמור מג - מזמור לחג הסכות- המשך Bnai Qorah Continuation of Psalm above. Aleppo Codex Max E Tawil
H Baruch Ben Haim
Tehillim 12 15 מזמור יב - מזמור לשמיני חג עצרת David Psalm for Shemini Asseret festival. This psalm admonishes informers, slanderers, and flatterers. Aleppo Codex Max E Tawil
H Baruch Ben Haim
למנצח בנגינות על השמינית מזמור

Pizmonim

Section Pizmon Page Song CommentaryRecordings Application
Sigah 518 435 אתה מרום Shalosh Regalim. Not clear if should be classified as Sigah. Some say Maqam Kuzam. Tabbush Manuscript E. Menaged
G. Shrem
M. Kairey
G. Shrem
Recording
קדיש
Mahour 181 151 חנון רחם Raphael Tabbush Sukkot. Hamaoui Manuscript Tabbush Manuscript M Kairey
Albert Cohen Saban
G. Shrem
Recording
I Cabasso
פזמון
Bayat 319 246 מעזי אז כלה קץ Raphael Tabbush “Mauzi,” or “My Fortress” (BAYAT, page 246), is a song that is very popular. H Raphael Tabbush is likely the author of this pizmon, but this is uncertain. The melody of this song is from the Arabic song “Baladi Askara Min Araf il Lama.” This song is associated with the Shalosh Regalim festivals due to a brief reference to them. The melody of this pizmon is typically applied to Shav’at Aniyim for weeks of Maqam BAYAT. Despite this being a song for the most happy of holidays, this song is actually very sad. It asks why has God abandoned us and why has the Messiah not yet arrived? It describes how our enemies have taken over our vineyards and have killed us. The climax of the song, “Al Damam,” describes how “my tears fall on their blood" (the blood of fellow Jews) and how our tears are enough to fill rivers. The four verse piece concludes with an open question: “Where has my Beloved gone; to Whom I rejoice three times a year?” Commentary on Pizmon N. Salem
Vital Israel
E. Menaged
Fule Yanani
I. Cabasso- Shav'at
G. Shrem
Recording
R Barzani- Shaveat
I Cabasso
E Sayegh
D Binker-Duek
שועת עניים
Nahwand 299.03 237c שאו ציונה נס ודגל Early Israeli melody. Recording
Hijaz 585 485 רוכב עבים Raphael Tabbush Shemini Asseret. E. Menaged
G. Shrem
Recording
I Cabasso
H Abraham Zafrani
שועת עניים
Ajam 215 173 מקהלות עם Mordechai Abadi This pizmon (AJAM, page 173), whose opening words translate as "In the assembly of the nation God is blessed," is a popular celebratory song associated with weddings. It is composed by the prominent rabbi, judge, and poet, H Mordekhai Abadi (b. Aleppo, 1826 - 1883), who is the author of "Dibre Mordekhai" (Aleppo, 1873), a collection of sixty nine pizmonim assorted by maqam, as well as "Miqra Qodesh," a collection of Baqashot. This song has four stanzas (acrostic: מ-ר-ד-כי) and a repeating chorus ("Haleluhu Gadeluhu"). The song seems to honor a bridegroom with the first name 'Jacob,' but this name is a metaphor for the entire nation of Israel. The song is an ongoing blessing to this bridegroom (i.e. wealth, honor, and longevity), as well as an ongoing praise to God for His generosity and kindness. The song ends with a remembrance of the strength that Israel had at the exodus from Egypt as well as a blessing for us to merit a future redemption when we will all live in Jerusalem. A Z Idelsohn notes, 1923 British Library Or. 10375 M Kairey
G. Shrem
Fule Yanani
Saul Nobeh Betesh
G. Shrem
Recording
I Cabasso
Eliahu Saal- Qaddish
נקדישך
Ajam 221.01 176a סוכה ולולב Sukkot. There are many melodies to this pizmon; including Maqam Ajam and Saba. J. Mosseri
Recording
Recording
Iraqi Recording
Hijaz 595 493 בואו נספר Hoshana Raba. Yabess Manuscript A Z Idelsohn notes, 1923 G. Shrem
G. Shrem
Recording
Rahawi Nawah 448 370 מפי אל מפי אל א״ב Maqam Girkah The pizmon “Mipi El” (RAHAWI-NAWAH, page 370), or “From the Mouth of God,” is commonly used for the Haqafot of Simhat Torah. The author is unknown, and renditions of this song are found in 19th century Aleppo manuscripts. The theme of "Mipi El" is the greatness of the Torah, and praise is given to four subjects; (1) God (author of the Torah), (2) Moses "Ben Amram" (who received the Torah), (3) the Torah itself, and (4) the nation of Israel (who receives the Torah from Moses). The song uses the Hebrew alphabet to provide adjectives for the four subjects above. In one version of the song, the long version, there are four adjectives of each letter to provide praise for the four subjects above (for a total of 22 stanzas). In the short version, however, there is only one adjective per letter (for a total of 6 stanzas). The use of the word “Ein” (translated as: 'there is none') in the song is based on the verse from the Prayer of Hanna in 1 Samuel 2:2 which says “Ein Qadosh KaHashem, Ki Ein Biltekha, v’Ein Sur Kelohenu.” In addition to Simhat Torah, the melody of this song is also used in association with Shabbat Vayesse due to the words “Yebarekh Et Yisrael” (He will bless Israel). Hamaoui Manuscript Attiah Manuscript Yabess Manuscript A Z Idelsohn notes, 1923 G. Shrem
Fule Yanani
G. Shrem
אל ההודאות
Ajam 228 179 אל רמה ימינך Raphael Tabbush Hatan Me'Onah. Tabbush Manuscript Yom Tob Yanani
David Sebi
Recording
שועת עניים
Bayat 326 249 ארוממך This pizmon (BAYAT, page 249), “I Will Exalt Thee,” is associated with the Shalosh Regalim festivals, and specifically Sukkot. This rhyming song is composed by H Raphael Antebi Tabbush (d. 1918). The theme of the song is praising God during the joyous pilgrimage to the Temple in Jerusalem. Among the reasons listed of why God is praised are: He performed miracles for us, destroyed our enemies, gave us the Torah, lifted us from bondage, forgives our transgressions, listens to our cries, and heals the sick. In this song, there are 22 stanzas, corresponding to the letters of the Hebrew alphabet, and each stanza ends with the chorus: “Le’ir Sion, Har Qodshekha, Sham Nismah Ve’naale” (To the City of Zion, Your Holy Mountain; There will we rejoice and ascend). The last stanza is a prayer for the arrival of Eliahou to herald the redemption, which "everyone is yearning for.” In addition to singing “Aromimkha” on the Shalosh Regalim, it is commonly chanted during the Haqafot of Simhat Torah. The melody of this can be applied to Mimisrayim on Shabbat Hol Hamoed. Tabbush Manuscript Fule Yanani
G. Shrem
ממצרים
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