August 15, 2022 ~ Shabbat EQEB. M SIGAH

Purim

Purim

Purim is observed 14 Adar outside Jerusalem


Prayers

Section Pizmon Page Song CommentaryRecordings Application
565.3 מי כמוך ואין כמוך Maqam Sigah Mi Khamocha for Shabbat Zachor G. Shrem
D Shiro
M Habusha
Recording- Arabic version
Esther 3020 E1 מגילת אסתר Tiqun Esther Ch 1 Tiqun Esther Ch 2 Tiqun Esther Ch 3 Tiqun Esther Ch 4 Tiqun Esther Ch 5 Tiqun Esther Ch 6 Tiqun Esther Ch 7 Tiqun Esther Ch 8 Tiqun Esther Ch 9 Tiqun Esther Ch 10 H Baruch Ben Haim- Full Reading
Max E Tawil- Esther
H Obadia Yosef- Iraqi Sigah chant
Eddie Mishaan- Full Reading
E Azrak- Full Megillah
H Mourad Maslaton- 1945- Full
M Kairey - Full
D Binker-Duek
Moshe Dwek (first eight verses)
Sigah 565.01 קוראי מגלה Shaare Zimra, Argentina book page 394. Read after the Megillah. Shaare Zimra, Argentina F. Yanani
D Binker-Duek
Sigah 2684 אדון עולם ישועתי אליעזר Melody of this song traditionally associated with Purim, although nothing in the song's text refers to holiday. Yabess Manuscript Shire Zimrah, Algiers, 1889 E Menaged- Purim- Nishmat
E Menaged- Purim- EH
G Shrem- Qaddish Purim 1
G Shrem- Qaddish Purim 2
I Cabasso- Qaddish
E Mishaniye- Qaddish
M Habusha- Qaddish
D Binker-Duek- Qaddish
D Binker-Duek - Pizmon

Pizmonim

Section Pizmon Page Song CommentaryRecordings Application
1677 429c אזכיר חסדי אל אברהם Maqam Saba This is a song for Purim. H Moshe Ashear had a custom of applying this to Semehim on the Shabbat prior to Shabbat Zakhor. Yabess Manuscript Sassoon Manuscript #647 Attiah Manuscript Abraham Sitehon Manuscript Recording- Saba
Recording- Sigah
Recording
D Binker-Duek - Semehim
שמחים
Sigah 553 459 ימי מלך אחשורוש ידידיה חזק Maqam Awj-Oj Purim. Attiah Manuscript Yabess Manuscript Abraham Sitehon Manuscript Mosseri-Kozli Manuscript Abraham Mizrahi Kawaje - Pizmon
Saba 501 415 חיש משגבי Raphael Tabbush "Hish Misgabi" (SABA, page 415) is a pizmon composed by H Raphael Antebi Tabbush in honor of Purim. It has been said by Rabbi Aaron Hamaoui of Boston that H Raphael Antebi Tabbush (d. 1918) was blind in his later years, and he needed his students to assist him to walk in the shuq, market, in Syria. One day, as he was walking, he heard the catchy Arabic melody “Hisbi Rabi“ being chanted in the market place. H Tabbush then rushed home, and immediately, he dictated words to his student, H Eliahou Hamaoui, the grandfather of Rabbi Aaron Hamaoui, to fit this melody. This ended up being “Hish Misgabi”; a song in honor of Purim. This pizmon has the acrostic “Raphael Hazaq”, and has 5 stanzas (in addition to the first verse, which serves as the chorus). The melody of this pizmon can be applied to Keter or Va’ani Tefilati, but should only be applied in close proximity to Purim. Hamaoui Manuscript Tabbush Manuscript Yosef Hamaoui
I. Cabasso
G. Shrem
G. Shrem
Recording
I Cabasso
Recording
כתר
Sigah 554 459 אברך את אלעזר Maqam Iraq Purim. This is the first pizmon that Gabriel A. Shrem has learned. Attiah Manuscript Sassoon Manuscript #647 Abraham Sitehon Manuscript Mosseri-Kozli Manuscript Shire Zimrah, Algiers, 1889 A Z Idelsohn notes, 1923 E. Menaged
Yosef Hamaoui
Fule Yanani
G. Shrem
Recording
שמחים
Sigah 555 460 אלי צור ישועתי "My God, the Rock of my Salvation; Why have you abandoned me?" is a translation of the first line of the pizmon "Eli Sur Yeshuati" (SIGAH, page 460); considered the flagship song of Purim. The author of this pizmon is said to be H David Yaaqob Pardo, although the acrostic written in the older manuscripts is "Asher Ben Yaaqob Hazaq." The song featured in most current pizmonim books is incomplete- only containing 5 stanzas; corresponding to the first five letters of the alphabet (אבגד״ה). In Aleppo manuscripts from before 1850 (such as Sassoon #647), however, this song has more stanzas. This song, consisting of references from Megillat Esther, contains rhyming sequences within each verse. The thing in common in each stanza is that the last verse always starts with the word "Chai" or life; proclaiming that despite all the hardships that we go through, this is life and God keeps us alive. This melody is applied to Naqdishakh on Shabbat Zakhor and on Purim. Sassoon Manuscript #647 E. Menaged
Yosef Hamaoui
Fule Yanani
G. Shrem
Recording
Moshe Dwek - Qaddish
נקדישך
Sigah 556 462 אל עושה נקמה This pizmon (SIGAH, page 462), whose first words are translated "God who makes revenge," is an entertaining song that retells the miracle of Purim using rhymes. There are a total of 22 stanzas in this piece; corresponding to each letter of the Hebrew alphabet (א״ב). Within a stanza, each clause rhymes with one another, except for the last clause of the stanza, which rhymes with all the previous stanzas. The pizmon, which is classified as Maqam OJ in the older manuscripts, originates from Aleppo and is older than 1850. The author of this piece is uncertain, although there is a possibility that it may be H Raphael Antebi Tabbush. The melody of this pizmon is from the Arabic "Ya Dini Yeaman," and is typically applied to Shavat Aniyim on Shabbat Zakhor, and to El Hahodaot on Purim itself. The song concludes with a prayer for redemption; to give good things to the Jewish nation in order to raise their spirits. Hamaoui Manuscript Tabbush Manuscript Yosef Hamaoui
Fule Yanani
G. Shrem
Recording
I Cabasso
Moshe Dwek
Moshe Dwek - EH
Moshe Dwek - Naqdishakh
שועת עניים
Sigah 557 464 אור גילה Raphael Tabbush Purim. A song of praise and thanksgiving for God's deliverance of the Jews from Haman. The pizmon, by Refael Antebi (19th century), has allusions to the Megillah as well its midrashim. The Jews got saved from the evil decree after prayers. Shir Ushbaha, 1921 A Z Idelsohn notes, 1923 E. Menaged
Yosef Hamaoui
Fule Yanani
G. Shrem
Recording
I Cabasso- (3) songs
אל ההודאות
Sigah 558 465 תם ונשלם Raphael Tabbush Purim. Shir Ushbaha, 1921 Yosef Hamaoui
Fule Yanani
G. Shrem
Recording
ממצרים
Sigah 559 466 קום ידידי הבה קציר חזק Maqam Awj-Oj Pizmon talks about Seudat Purim and the mitzvot of Purim. Talks about drinking on Purim and how you should drink until you don't know the difference between "Cursed be Haman and Blessed be Mordechai". The end of the pizmon talks about R' Zeirah who got too drunk and the trouble he put himself into as a result. Attiah Manuscript Yabess Manuscript Abraham Sitehon Manuscript M. Habusha
Iraqi version
Sigah 560 467 יום הנסים והפורקן ישראל Maqam Awj-Oj Purim. More popular in Damascus tradition. Attiah Manuscript Sassoon Manuscript #647 Yabess Manuscript Mosseri-Kozli Manuscript J. Mosseri
אל ההודאות
Saba 473 389 יה אלי צור משגבי Raphael Tabbush Shabbat Zakhor, Ki Tisa, Ki Tesse. Hamaoui Manuscript British Library Or. 10375 G. Shrem
G. Shrem
Recording
G Shrem
Shabetai Laniado
Hijaz 594 492 רנו גילו Raphael Tabbush This pizmon (HIJAZ, page 492), composed by H Raphael Antebi Tabbush, is a song written for Purim. Unlike other Purim songs, most of which are in Maqam SIGAH, this song is classified as Maqam HIJAZ; a maqam typically reserved for sad occasions. The acrostic of this piece is "Raphael Hazaq," and consists of 5 stanzas; corresponding to the letters of the author's name. Each stanza is followed by the chorus which begins with the words "Zekher Sadiq Yarum Hodo" etc. The song opens on a happy note ("Proclaim joy and rejoice all creations"); calling onto all the creations of the world to recognize the miracle of Purim. The middle of the pizmon is about the hard times and suffering that Haman put the Jews through ("the enemy conspired to be the head"). The last stanza ends on a hopeful note; calling for the Messiah and the rebuilding of the Temple so that we can offer sacrifices again. The melody of this song is applied to either Naqdishakh on Purim or Keter on Shabbat Zakhor. Tabbush Manuscript E. Menaged
Yosef Hamaoui
Yosef Hamaoui - Qedusha
Fule Yanani
Tawil- Qedusha
G. Shrem
Recording
Y Nahari
M Kairey
Moshe Dwek - Naqdishakh
נקדישך

Purim Missrayim

Adar 28 is Pourim Missrayim, Yehi Shem is said.

The Ottoman Sultan Suleiman began his reign in 1520 after the death of his father Sultan Selim I in October of that year. Suleiman appointed Ahmad Pasha, a third vizier of Caucasian origin, to be the governor of Egypt in 1523. Ahmad Pasha was disappointed by the appointment as he had proven himself in several battles to be an excellent commander and hoped to be promoted to the first rather than the second viziership in Egypt. Ahmad arrived in Cairo on January 9, 1524 and left no doubt as to his intention to gain independence from the Ottoman Sultan by establishing his own sultanate in Egypt. After forming an alliance with the Mamluks, he indeed proclaimed himself Sultan of Egypt, ordered his name to be mentioned in the Khutbah, and instructed the head of the mint, a Jew named Abraham Castro, to mint coins in his name. Minting coins in one's name and having one's name included in the Friday sermon at a mosque were the two most important signs of sovereignty throughout Islamic history. Ahmad's actions represented overt signs of rebellion. Fearing the consequences, Castro fled to Istanbul to report to Sultan Suleiman.

 After Ahmad discovered that Castro had betrayed him, he took revenge on the Jews of Cairo and their supporters. The oppression of the Jews in this case, it is important to note, was not so much because of their religion; Ahmad was actually after their wealth, and he used his anger as an excuse to raise funds from the Jews. Meanwhile, Ahmad established his position as the Sultan of Egypt and fought against the troops who were still loyal to Suleiman. He formed an alliance with the son of the last Caliph, al-Mutawakkil, and promised to appoint him as his deputy in return for his support.

 On February 9, 1524, Ahmad won a fierce battle against Sultan Suleiman's supporters and established himself in the Citadel. He taxed all the citizens heavily in order to finance his administration. In addition, he gave the Jewish Quarter to his Mamluk supporters who pillaged and looted it, killing at least five Jews. One of Ahmad's advisers, a Jew named Abraham al-Kharkamani, advised the Pasha to demand a ransom from the Jews. This suited Ahmad, since he needed money. He demanded on hundred and fifty thousand gold dinars from the Jews, who could not raise this sum. as they had just been robbed by the Mamluks.

 At that time opposition to the Pasha grew, and three Egyptian officers (Janim al-Hamzawi, Ali Muhammad Bek, and al-Amir Muhammad) who were still loyal to Sultan Suleiman succeeded in forming a group to assassinate Ahmad. He was attacked in the bathhouse but managed to gather some loyal followers and fled to the desert, apparently on February 22, 1524. There, he sought to assemble loyal Circassian and Bedouin troops.

 Back in Cairo, the three commanders took over the Citadel and eliminated any support for Ahmad Pasha. They sent a large number of troops after Ahmad, whose followers abandoned and then betrayed him. He was finally caught and beheaded on March 4, 1524 (Adar 28). Following these events, Ibrahim Pasha, Sultan Suleiman's first vizier, was sent to Cairo to reorganize the administration there. Although he stayed in Cairo only a few weeks, he achieved major administrative reforms.

 Meanwhile the Jews who had been imprisoned by Ahmad Pasha were set free, and the threat to the Jewish Quarter was removed. In celebration of their deliverance, the Jewish community in Cairo composed a scroll to record this miracle. They established the 27th of Adar as a day of fasting and the 28th of Adar as a festive holiday to be celebrated after the manner of Pourim. On that day every year, which they called "Pourim Missrayim," they would read in their synagogues the Scroll recording the events of their deliverance and use it as part of their liturgy. The Scroll itself was termed Megillat Pourim Missrayim.

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